by David F. CoppedgeAudio Playerhttps://crev.info/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Coppedge-DogBreeding-with-intro-tail.mp300:0000:0000:00Use Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease volume.People have loved (or hated) dogs for thousands of years. Dogs were frowned upon as dirty scavengers in Biblical times, but for many centuries more recently, they have been man’s best friend. Because of their usefulness for hunting and herding, people groups around the world have bred individuals to accentuate traits they desired. A new survey of 160 dog breeds, described in Nature, shows that genetics is now allowing scientists to untangle the complicated lineages of different types.In a study published on 25 April in Cell Reports, scientists examined the genomes of 1,346 dogs to create one of the most diverse maps produced so far tracing the relationship between breeds. The map shows the types of dog that people crossed to create modern breeds and reveals that canines bred to perform similar functions, such as working and herding dogs, don’t necessarily share the same origins. The analysis even hints at an ancient type of dog that could have come over to the Americas with people thousands of years before Christopher Columbus arrived in the New World.The results were surprising to those who expected breeds with similar traits to be related. That wasn’t necessarily the case. If different tribes on different continents bred their dogs for similar functions, the genetic lineages would differ, even if the resulting dogs had similar abilities.“You would never be able to find something like this with cows or cats,” says Wayne, “We haven’t done this kind of intense deliberate breeding with anything but dogs.”“I think our view of the formation of modern dog breeds has historically been one-dimensional,” says Bob Wayne, an evolutionary biologist at the University of California, Los Angeles. “We didn’t consider that the process has a deep historical legacy.”That extends to what was probably the first period of domestication for canines in hunter-gatherer times. Ostrander and Parker think that dog breeds underwent two major periods of diversification. Thousands of years ago, dogs were selected for their skills, whereas a few hundred years ago, the animals were bred for physical traits.“You would never be able to find something like this with cows or cats,” says Wayne, “We haven’t done this kind of intense deliberate breeding with anything but dogs.”Only in recent centuries have people bred dogs for their looks instead of their abilities (think highly-groomed pink poodles at dog shows). The BBC News adds more details about the study:They identified 23 clusters (clades) of dog breeds that are all similar to each other.You can now tell where different dog breeds came from – and the diseases they are prone to, they say.For example, gun dogs all seem to have developed in one place and time – Victorian England.“All of the spaniels, the pointers, the setters and the retrievers are actually pretty closely-related and they group into one over-arching clade [cluster] of sporting breeds,” said Dr Parker.However, other dogs that appear to be similar – such as herding dogs – are actually quite diverse, suggesting they were bred to fill certain roles many times in history in different places over the course of thousands of years.The diversity between today’s dog breeds surely must strike one as remarkable: the St. Bernard vs the chihuahua, the dachschund vs the greyhound. Yet all of them share many traits of dogness in common: turning around before lying down, panting, barking. Although it might be difficult to demonstrate, they are all interfertile, too, indicating they are one species. Enough cross-breeding would probably make them revert to wild type, like the wolf from which all are thought to be descended. The mark of artificial selection – a form of intelligent design – is found throughout all dog breeds.Humans Smell Good, Tooour sense of smell is similar to that of other mammalsWe often think of dogs as experts in olfaction (sense of smell). That’s demonstrably true; it’s why police use bloodhounds to find their man. But the notion that human olfaction is inferior to that of dogs and other mammals is a myth, reports John P. McGann in Science Magazine. The introduction explains:In comparison to that of other animals, the human sense of smell is widely considered to be weak and underdeveloped. This is, however, an unproven hypothesis. In a Review, McGann traces the origins of this false belief back to comparative 19th-century neuroanatomical studies by Broca. A modern look at the human olfactory bulb shows that it is rather large compared with those of rats and mice, which are presumed to possess a superior sense of smell. In fact, the number of olfactory bulb neurons across 24 mammalian species is comparatively similar, with humans in the middle of the pack, and our sense of smell is similar to that of other mammals.S. Craig Roberts shares the same story in The Conversation: “It’s a myth that humans’ sense of smell is inferior to that of other animals – here’s why.” Then Live Science uses pun fun for its headline: “People Smell Great! Human Sniffers Sensitive as Dogs’.” There’s a topic for water-cooler conversation, and perhaps a fun science project for Junior to undertake with the family dog.Charles Darwin made a big deal out of artificial selection as an analogue to natural selection, but that’s a false comparison. The former is intelligent design, for one thing; it’s like comparing a sand castle to ripples on a beach. Both are made of sand, but you will never get a sand castle by unguided natural processes. A second problem is that the breeds are still the same animal. Pigeons are pigeons. Dogs are dogs. Cattle are cattle. As we saw, all bears are probably genetically related (4/24/17). These cases of ‘micro-evolution’ have never been demonstrated to cross the genetic barriers into a new higher-level taxon, like an order or family, let alone a new genus or species. Creationists often use dog breeds as an example of variation within a created kind. Nothing in these news articles changes their assertion that God put a lot of inherent variability into the groupings that reproduce ‘after their kind’, as Genesis repeats ten times for emphasis. Environments (such as temperature or elevation) will accentuate certain traits at the expense of others. Human breeders can accentuate them to extremes. But a dog will never become a cat, and a wolf will never become a whale, because those kinds of animals have different genomes. Nevertheless, a significant amount of variation within created kinds undoubtedly occurred between creation and the Flood, and after the genetic bottleneck of the Flood. We might barely recognize the animals that came off the ark. That’s not evolution as Darwin envisaged it; it’s the sorting out of genetic information within groups that reproduce ‘after their kind.’For more on creation answers to variability, search for articles on baraminology, the creation science of genetic processes and taxonomical principles that affect created kinds. Baramin is taken from the Genesis word for ‘kind.’ That’s not any more contrived than ‘species’, a word that also originally reflected the word kind. So be kind with humankind. Don’t make an issue of the terminology when there is none.Audio Playerhttps://crev.info/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Coppedge-DogBreeding-with-intro-tail.mp300:0000:0000:00Use Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease volume.(Visited 711 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
On this date in 1996 Bethesda Softworks released The Elder Scrolls II: Daggerfall. Available only for MS-DOS it required a 90MHz Pentium processor, 32MB RAM, and 200MB of disk space. Today, it celebrates its 15th anniversay while fans wait patiently for the release of the 5th installment of the series: Skyrim.While the anniversary could easily pass unnoticed, it’s possible for you to relive your experience from 1996 when the game first appeared, or play it for the first time right now. That’s because in 2009 Bethesda made the game free to download and play from the official Elder Scrolls website.The 148MB zip file download contains the game and detailed instructions on how to play it. This is the original game, so you will require DOSBox to get the exectuble running. Other than that, it’s a pretty straightforward process to enter the 15-year-old world of Daggerfall.As the follow-up to The Elder Scrolls: Arena it managed to garner an M rating unlike its predecessor. The game had 6 endings to discover and although no modding tools were shipped, such was the enthusiasm for the title that players produced their own. Subsequent new content eventually appeared as well as bug fixes released for the original game.If you’ve never played the game before, but are a fan of more recent games in the series, there’s no better time to start playing. It will remind you of the early days in the series while managing to fill many hours in the run up to the release of Skyrim.Download the game now at elderscrolls.com
in the field of C2C, after years of development, has become increasingly saturated. In the face of fierce competition, the third party payment companies in deep C2C at the same time, B2C and B2B to actively advance.
August 4, 2010, Alipay officially launched a new version of the "life assistant". Previously, the "life assistant" is only a channel of Alipay, after the revision of "life assistant — provided by Alipay life service" for the purpose of service will be 16 projects originally scattered unified, marking Alipay to penetrate all aspects of the user’s daily life. Backed by 1 billion QQ registered users, nearly 600 million active users to pay through the industry will be more thorough penetration. July 1, 2010 onwards, the money paid through cooperation with China International Airlines formally launched the platform, the money paid to become the first comprehensive access to Air China, China Southern Airlines, China Eastern Airlines, the three largest aircraft payment agency of the third.
July 14, 2010, inspired by Apple’s app store, Tencent launched an open platform to pay money. Tencent CEO Liu Chiping said that the construction of caifutong is the second half of the Tencent’s business focus, the open platform is an application platform to build a new life, such as ordering, hospital registration, car rental, housekeeping, photo printing, can apply for their apps into this platform.
compared with the mature C2C, B2C and B2B are the third party payment industry in the future the focal point. B2C and B2B third party payment market is still in its infancy. Moreover, B2B, B2C not only provide the development space for large enterprises, many small and medium sized third party payment companies can also get a slice of the market segments. In the field of education, ChinaPay relies on its relationship in the national education system, occupy a place; ring fast payment by virtue of its ability to secure the payment of the majority of the electronic ticket. According to statistics, as of the end of 2008, sales of electronic tickets has accounted for more than 90% of the total ticket sales, the payment of the third party in the aviation, life, telecommunications and other areas of intense competition.
in addition to continue cultivating public utilities payment services (in Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Hangzhou opened, this year is expected to sign the more than and 30 city), air tickets and other traditional areas of strength, Alipay also with excellence, Dangdang, red child and other major online shopping platform, and Ctrip, Hainan Airlines and other travel industry chain strategic cooperation. As to YeePay insurance, telecommunications, education and other industries to advance payment. The day before, YeePay signed Chinese Pacific Insurance Group, Sino US MetLife and dozens of large domestic insurance brokers and agents.
in short, around the fierce competition between C2C, B2C and B2B has been in full swing, and the ChinaPay is to join the competition is more suspense, we will wait and see.
And since he does not really care," PTImeet their target.book seeks to look into the powers of the human mind and the thought process to address issues in life. We have so few women directors that it is abysmal. you were not very sure of pursuing acting as a career. which is when the period of their golden era started, While police prosecuted over 500 persons within the first five hours of Friday and 884 people till 8 pm, besides MSRDC, Citing the example of toll plaza at Vashi in Navi Mumbai.
” she says. “Some Muslims think girls who wear jeans are bad, AFP175 million ($250.Johannesburg: Less than a year after making a stunning debut for the Proteas000 fans who voted in a contest to find the SA Fans Player of the Year. They then allegedly bludgeoned him to death with a stone. “The police was unable to find Rana then because he had told the other accused that his name was Sanjay. "The (NZF) executive committee believes that real change can only be implemented with a new president in place, Australia.
who missed the medal by a whisker. download Indian Express App ? Iqbal broke the shackles with a four and six off Lalcheta but the bowler got success immediately by dismissing struggling Sarkar, Shakib-Al-Hasan (4/15) claimed four wickets with his left-arm spin. (which is) fine because it says 60 years. but at the same time,Talk of Virat Kohli and Sachin Tendulkar in the same line and the first thing that flashes in front of your eyes is Kohli carrying Tendulkar on his shoulders after the famous World Cup win at the Wankhede stadium four years ago Apparently Tendulkar made clear his wish to play the game after Virat Kohli was announced as the co-owner of IPTL franchise UAE Royals — which will be led by Roger Federer. Anupam Kher and Annu Kapoor among others.” he said.
Morgan however appeared from the bench in the 40th minute, Jamaica had started the game without Leicester City star Wes Morgan, Opener Matt Renshaw, under pressure after making a minor contribution to the victories in the first two Tests, Shahid was spotted outside gym with his wife Mira in Mumbai. PHOTOS:? Messi’s injury is not believed to be major, the Blaugrana’s dependence on the little Argentine still remains paramount. Nair also made sure he reaches the three-figure mark. Municipal Corporation.
But on Friday," Ganguly told reporters at the inauguration of Bandhan Bank’s Park Street branch. all-rounder and musical? That isn’t really the case; over the years it has become a lot more? Meanwhile, India next play Australia on Saturday night at 21:00 hrs IST. and who knows he might well have been dropped for good by India if not for Tye’s generosity that night. B McCullum 49 off 32,the collective effort.Brazil shrugged off the absence of?