How do you get optimization by chance? In a Concepts piece in Nature this week,1 William J. Sutherland (U. of East Anglia, UK) suggested that the constraints of the environment will drive living systems toward optimal solutions. He thinks that’s how “selective forces” shaped your teeth and jaw, for instance. Economists and engineers use optimization theory, he reasons, so why not biologists? The use of optimization has allowed biologists to move from merely describing patterns or mechanisms to being able to predict, from first principles, how organisms should be designed. Optimality models are based on three elements: the choices available; what is being optimized; and the constraints. Physiologists have used optimization to answer a wide range of questions about animal morphology. For example, optimization has been invoked to predict the design of a bone of given weight that minimizes the risk of breaking or buckling; the speed at which it is most efficient to switch from running to walking; and the gut design that provides the highest energy gain from a given diet. The prediction of the triplet code as the most parsimonious means of coding 20 amino acids using the four bases of DNA is another successful example of this methodology. (Emphasis added in all quotes.)Though the concept has its critics, Sutherland gives a few more examples of how the optimization approach might have shaped biological systems by natural selection. But intelligent design (ID) is clearly not what he has in mind; he gives Darwin the credit: “Darwin’s theory of natural selection provided an obvious mechanism for explaining optimization in biology: more efficiently designed individuals will leave more offspring.”2 The optimization approach will be fruitful, he concludes:A considerable strength of using optimization is that once we understand why organisms are as they are, then it should be possible to understand how they will respond to new conditions. Optimization can therefore be used to understand behaviour, and to predict population dynamics, in new environments, such as those resulting from habitat loss or a rise in sea level. There are increasing calls for biology to be predictive. Optimization is the only approach biology has for making predictions from first principles. The wider adoption of these ideas right across biology should reap ample rewards.1William J. Sutherland, “The Best Solution,” Nature 435, 569 (2 June 2005) | doi: 10.1038/435569a.2Of course this is obvious. How do you know the individual is efficiently designed? Because it left more offspring. Why did it leave more offspring? Well, obviously, it must have been more efficiently designed. This circular argument, is an example of a tautology, or a statement of the obvious, like “deaf people can’t hear, because they are deaf.” Natural selection falls into this tautology trap any time fitness is defined in terms of fecundity (see 10/29/2002 entry).Sorry, Bill. You can’t get the blood of design from a turn-up of natural selection. Necessity is the mother of invention only when intelligence guides the process. The only thing nature is good at optimizing is entropy. The optimization approach will only make sense when design scientists oust the naturalistic usurpers from biology.(Visited 10 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
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The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Liberia (ELCL) broke ground over the weekend for the construction of a multi-purpose complex valued at over US$50,000 in Vahun, Lofa County. Rev. Bishop Amos Bolay, speaking at the ceremony, said the complex will comprise a guest house, mini college, a clinic and other essential components that will meet the needs of Liberians as well as Sierra Leoneans in the region.“Many pastors continue to receive training in the United States, South Africa and other parts of the world that will return and offer their services at the complex,” Rev. Bolay said He further indicated that the Wayormi District Pastoral Training is expected to resume in September this year.Early next year, Rev. Bolay said, there will also be an exclusive training for fifty pastors and their wives that will help them understand the significance of being a fruitful steward.He explained that a group of individuals who broke away from the church cannot be described as a congregation, as speculated.The church cannot allow a 12-man political group to hold the church of Jesus Christ hostage, he contended.Rev. Bolay pointed out that there was no single document which recognized a congregation’s name, and if it were so, the Evangelical Lutheran Church would have submitted to it.“The Evangelical Lutheran Church remains open to all, because it is purely a Bible believing faith of which everyone is welcome to worship,’’ he stressed.Rev. Bolay appealed to the church to work together with a single focus on the Lord Jesus Christ.Meanwhile, Rev. Bolay urged those who broke away to return. The church remains open to work with everyone to promote God’s Kingdom, he emphasized. “Let us ever live in the spirit of repentance and forgiveness as we await his gracious return,” Rev. Bolay added.During his recent visit to Germany, Rev. Bolay said the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Liberia was accredited as a full member of the Internal Confessional Lutherans and a representative from Liberia will be traveling to join other Lutherans from around the world in Italy next year. A process has begun for church members to benefit from higher educational opportunities at LCMS Universities in the United States.At the end of the conference Rev. Bolay and the clergy were praised for selecting Lofa County as the venue of the conference.Rev. Arthur Zokar expressed delight over the manner in which the conference was conducted. Over 1000 Evangelicals and others attended the five-day conference.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
student entrepreneurs more and more, in order not to affect the study, many entrepreneurs have started to go up from the electricity supplier in the school, encouragement and support, 20 year old Lin Hongyuan has successfully built a Taobao shop, this year’s double 11, his shop harvest more than 10 thousand orders.
"our team into the November, a single volume in 900 single day, this year the" double 11 "single day sales of very good, 1 pm breakthrough 3000 single, 7200 single breakthrough at 3:30 in the afternoon, the list continues to grow, over a million single visual list today is on board a nail. The." Yesterday afternoon, speaking of double 11 record, 20 year old Lin Hongyuan can not control the excitement.
"last year" double 11 ", our team has 130 single, 600 yuan of profits, then feel very cattle. I never dreamed that this year ‘double 11’ a day out of 10 thousand single, conservative estimate of at least $25 thousand profit." Lin Hongyuan from Taizhou, currently in the Yiwu Institute of business and entrepreneurship college sophomore, is a pioneering college 14e create electricity supplier class 4 entrepreneurial pioneer".
"first saw Lin Hongyuan, I think he is very small, like a junior high school student, I was also worried that he will not adapt to college life, did not expect him to start so badly, can break the 10 thousand single day." Li Chunli is the teacher in charge of Lin Hongyuan, she said that the big man of the big, learning very hard, entrepreneurship is also very particular about strategy. He grew fast, a year to become a class electricity supplier entrepreneurial pioneer character, he currently has a fixed team of five people, has successfully created a three crown shop."