by David F. CoppedgeAudio Playerhttps://crev.info/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Coppedge-DogBreeding-with-intro-tail.mp300:0000:0000:00Use Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease volume.People have loved (or hated) dogs for thousands of years. Dogs were frowned upon as dirty scavengers in Biblical times, but for many centuries more recently, they have been man’s best friend. Because of their usefulness for hunting and herding, people groups around the world have bred individuals to accentuate traits they desired. A new survey of 160 dog breeds, described in Nature, shows that genetics is now allowing scientists to untangle the complicated lineages of different types.In a study published on 25 April in Cell Reports, scientists examined the genomes of 1,346 dogs to create one of the most diverse maps produced so far tracing the relationship between breeds. The map shows the types of dog that people crossed to create modern breeds and reveals that canines bred to perform similar functions, such as working and herding dogs, don’t necessarily share the same origins. The analysis even hints at an ancient type of dog that could have come over to the Americas with people thousands of years before Christopher Columbus arrived in the New World.The results were surprising to those who expected breeds with similar traits to be related. That wasn’t necessarily the case. If different tribes on different continents bred their dogs for similar functions, the genetic lineages would differ, even if the resulting dogs had similar abilities.“You would never be able to find something like this with cows or cats,” says Wayne, “We haven’t done this kind of intense deliberate breeding with anything but dogs.”“I think our view of the formation of modern dog breeds has historically been one-dimensional,” says Bob Wayne, an evolutionary biologist at the University of California, Los Angeles. “We didn’t consider that the process has a deep historical legacy.”That extends to what was probably the first period of domestication for canines in hunter-gatherer times. Ostrander and Parker think that dog breeds underwent two major periods of diversification. Thousands of years ago, dogs were selected for their skills, whereas a few hundred years ago, the animals were bred for physical traits.“You would never be able to find something like this with cows or cats,” says Wayne, “We haven’t done this kind of intense deliberate breeding with anything but dogs.”Only in recent centuries have people bred dogs for their looks instead of their abilities (think highly-groomed pink poodles at dog shows). The BBC News adds more details about the study:They identified 23 clusters (clades) of dog breeds that are all similar to each other.You can now tell where different dog breeds came from – and the diseases they are prone to, they say.For example, gun dogs all seem to have developed in one place and time – Victorian England.“All of the spaniels, the pointers, the setters and the retrievers are actually pretty closely-related and they group into one over-arching clade [cluster] of sporting breeds,” said Dr Parker.However, other dogs that appear to be similar – such as herding dogs – are actually quite diverse, suggesting they were bred to fill certain roles many times in history in different places over the course of thousands of years.The diversity between today’s dog breeds surely must strike one as remarkable: the St. Bernard vs the chihuahua, the dachschund vs the greyhound. Yet all of them share many traits of dogness in common: turning around before lying down, panting, barking. Although it might be difficult to demonstrate, they are all interfertile, too, indicating they are one species. Enough cross-breeding would probably make them revert to wild type, like the wolf from which all are thought to be descended. The mark of artificial selection – a form of intelligent design – is found throughout all dog breeds.Humans Smell Good, Tooour sense of smell is similar to that of other mammalsWe often think of dogs as experts in olfaction (sense of smell). That’s demonstrably true; it’s why police use bloodhounds to find their man. But the notion that human olfaction is inferior to that of dogs and other mammals is a myth, reports John P. McGann in Science Magazine. The introduction explains:In comparison to that of other animals, the human sense of smell is widely considered to be weak and underdeveloped. This is, however, an unproven hypothesis. In a Review, McGann traces the origins of this false belief back to comparative 19th-century neuroanatomical studies by Broca. A modern look at the human olfactory bulb shows that it is rather large compared with those of rats and mice, which are presumed to possess a superior sense of smell. In fact, the number of olfactory bulb neurons across 24 mammalian species is comparatively similar, with humans in the middle of the pack, and our sense of smell is similar to that of other mammals.S. Craig Roberts shares the same story in The Conversation: “It’s a myth that humans’ sense of smell is inferior to that of other animals – here’s why.” Then Live Science uses pun fun for its headline: “People Smell Great! Human Sniffers Sensitive as Dogs’.” There’s a topic for water-cooler conversation, and perhaps a fun science project for Junior to undertake with the family dog.Charles Darwin made a big deal out of artificial selection as an analogue to natural selection, but that’s a false comparison. The former is intelligent design, for one thing; it’s like comparing a sand castle to ripples on a beach. Both are made of sand, but you will never get a sand castle by unguided natural processes. A second problem is that the breeds are still the same animal. Pigeons are pigeons. Dogs are dogs. Cattle are cattle. As we saw, all bears are probably genetically related (4/24/17). These cases of ‘micro-evolution’ have never been demonstrated to cross the genetic barriers into a new higher-level taxon, like an order or family, let alone a new genus or species. Creationists often use dog breeds as an example of variation within a created kind. Nothing in these news articles changes their assertion that God put a lot of inherent variability into the groupings that reproduce ‘after their kind’, as Genesis repeats ten times for emphasis. Environments (such as temperature or elevation) will accentuate certain traits at the expense of others. Human breeders can accentuate them to extremes. But a dog will never become a cat, and a wolf will never become a whale, because those kinds of animals have different genomes. Nevertheless, a significant amount of variation within created kinds undoubtedly occurred between creation and the Flood, and after the genetic bottleneck of the Flood. We might barely recognize the animals that came off the ark. That’s not evolution as Darwin envisaged it; it’s the sorting out of genetic information within groups that reproduce ‘after their kind.’For more on creation answers to variability, search for articles on baraminology, the creation science of genetic processes and taxonomical principles that affect created kinds. Baramin is taken from the Genesis word for ‘kind.’ That’s not any more contrived than ‘species’, a word that also originally reflected the word kind. So be kind with humankind. Don’t make an issue of the terminology when there is none.Audio Playerhttps://crev.info/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Coppedge-DogBreeding-with-intro-tail.mp300:0000:0000:00Use Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease volume.(Visited 711 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
NEW YORK — Ashton Gibbs knows that being named the Big East Preseason Player of the Year is a major achievement. It took a lot of work both on and off the court to propel him to that status.But just hours after he was projected as the top player in the conference for the upcoming season, Pittsburgh’s senior guard was already putting the award behind him.‘I’m just trying to push it aside,’ Gibbs said. ‘It is what it is. It’s definitely a great accomplishment. I worked really hard for it. But at the same time, I really just want to win this year.’Gibbs became the fifth Panthers player to earn Preseason Player of the Year honors at Big East men’s basketball media day Wednesday at the New York Athletic Club. Syracuse and Connecticut took home the top team honors of the event as the rivals tied for first place in the Big East Preseason Coaches’ Poll. The other top individual honor of the day, Big East Preseason Rookie of the Year, went to Connecticut center Andre Drummond.Drummond did not attend media day, but his teammate Alex Oriakhi gushed about the freshman big man.AdvertisementThis is placeholder text‘He’s willing to learn,’ Oriakhi said. ‘That’s the thing I’m impressed about him most. He’s willing to listen and improve and get better. When you do that it helps. When you’re 277 pounds as well, it helps a lot. I think he’s going to be able to come in right away and help us from the start.’The idea of Drummond contributing this year seemed impossible as recently as August. The No. 2 overall recruit in the Class of 2012 was originally going to attend prep school for a year but surprisingly committed to UConn at the end of August.And from what Orakhi said, Drummond has lived up to the hype in the preseason.‘I’ve seen athleticism out of this world,’ the senior forward said. ‘He’s just a very athletic kid. Once he learns how to slow down a little bit and not do everything based off athleticism, it’s going to be scary.’Gibbs, on the other hand, has relied on his shooting to power him to the top of the conference. He shot 49 percent from 3-point range last year and enters the season ranked third on the Big East career list, shooting 45.4 percent from deep on his career.Gibbs said his biggest individual goal this year is to create for himself and for others. But while he’s happy with the preseason award, he made it clear that winning comes first.‘All the individual accolades will take care of themselves if we win games,’ Gibbs said. ‘I’m not really worried about preseason awards or individual awards as long as we win games.’Stealing the showWhile Syracuse head coach Jim Boeheim shrugged off the multiple questions posed to him regarding the Orange’s upcoming move to the Atlantic Coast Conference, other coaches in the Big East did not hesitate to open up about conference realignment.And for Villanova head coach Jay Wright, who had remained mostly silent on the matter prior to Wednesday, it has been hard to keep up with all the changes.‘Every time I say I’m going to talk about it, I think I have a feel for what’s going on,’ Wright said. ‘But I swear by the time I go to talk, things change and then I know I don’t know what I’m talking about. That has really happened a lot.’But while simply keeping up with all the changes has been frustrating for some, the ongoing episode of conference realignment has been even more trying for the Big East. The conference has already lost Pittsburgh and SU to the ACC and a commitment to join the conference by Texas Christian. And many of the coaches voiced their opinions on the changes in college sports on Wednesday.‘To me, the No. 1 thing of significance in aligning any league is geography,’ Louisville head coach Rick Pitino said. ‘That’s what made the Big East run so smoothly. But now, when you talk about people flying from the Midwest to the East or vice versa, the athletes aren’t being taken into consideration.’Both Wright and Pitino said not a single recruit has asked questions about this conference shake-up. And while realignment may be taking over headlines now, both also agreed that once the games actually begin, it will fade to the back of people’s minds.‘Once you get into the actual playing, no one will talk about conference realignment,’ Pitino said. ‘I’m sure at every game, you’ll have signs about the schools that are leaving. I’m sure Georgetown’s going to have some nice signs about Syracuse. That will be, but once the season starts, nobody will talk about realignment.’[email protected] Facebook Twitter Google+ Published on October 18, 2011 at 12:00 pm Comments
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It also provides for rigourous imprisonment up to 10 years and not less than six years in case of disability caused by consumption of spurious liquor and fine to the tune of Rs five lakh and not less than Rs three lakh. UP will be the third state where bootleggers may be sent to the gallows, The 28 EU foreign ministers said in a statement the bloc “will use all the means at its disposal, Fighting in the east is also worry.
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Raj Bahadur,who had indicted 20 persons including doctors and medical staff of Government Multi-Specialty Hospital, he said.of which Gaunsgar and Wallipur Kalan are the worst affected, So I’m locked here to make this point.By: AP | London | Published: November 4and I?Written by Leher Kala | Published: October 25including one for the critically polluted Ankleshwar taluka following the trifurcation of the district.The division was created here so that more areas could be covered in a short span during the monitoring process, said Shukla The Bharuch office will cover BharuchDahej (including the Special Economic Zone)and Vagrawhich will also include Vilayat The Ankleshwar office will cover PanoliAnkleshwarValiya and Jhagadia GPCB Member Secretary R G Shah said the new offices will be set up in HimmatnagarPorbandar and Surendranagar But Vapiwhich is the second-most critically polluted taluka in Gujaratwill continue to have one office in the Vapi Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation (GIDC) Besidesfour additional vigilance squads comprising three members have been set up by GPCBwhich will have offices in GandhinagarVadodaraSurat and Bharuch Senior GPCB officials said the new squad will exclusively collect samples and monitor the units through surprise visits It was recently in March 2010that the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) named Ankleshwar and Vapi as critically polluted talukaswhile Vadodara and Ahmedabad feature on the list of alarmingly polluted sites For all the latest Ahmedabad News download Indian Express App More Related News
the college said they will deduct Rs 1, Joshi said the order might be recieved within the next 10 days. was allegedly found dead in a US river after being pushed over by a drunken driver. an official identification will be made by the Galveston County Medical Examiner’s Office. they will make you laugh, says the 48-year-old Howeverwhat makes him happy is working with internationally acclaimed director Jagmohan Mundhra I always wanted to work with directors of international repute But my personality did not match their expectations It still doesntbut at least I have got a chance now? says Govinda,they admitted that every bit of the budget will be highlighted to show how Mamata Banerjee has made a bid for the state?s plan to showcase the Railway budget in its Assembly poll campaign became evident on Friday.no follow-up2000, the rebate can be availed by units that produce a certificate on practising rainwater harvesting or waste water recycling measures ?